A beverage made from roasted coffee beans is called coffee. Coffee is a dark-colored, bitter, and slightly acidic beverage that, mostly because of its caffeine content, has a stimulating impact on people. The hot beverage market has the biggest sales in the entire world.

Unroasted green coffee beans are created by separating the seeds from the fruits of the Coffea plant. A cup of coffee is made by first roasting the beans, then grinding them into tiny particles that are often soaked in hot water before being filtered out. Even though cooled or iced coffee is widespread, it is often served hot. There are numerous ways to make and serve coffee, including espresso, French press, caffè latte, and canned already-brewed coffee. To disguise the bitter taste or improve the flavour, people frequently use sugar, sugar substitutes, milk, and cream.

Although coffee is now a common product worldwide, it has a long history that is strongly related to regional culinary customs around the Red Sea. The earliest reliable documentation of coffee use as the contemporary beverage dates to the middle of the 15th century at Sufi shrines in present-day Yemen. At that time, coffee seeds were initially roasted and brewed using techniques that are still used today. Yemenis started growing coffee after obtaining the beans from the Ethiopian Highlands through middlemen near the Somali coast. The beverage made its way to the remainder of the Middle East and North Africa by the 16th century, and it later travelled to Europe. Coffee developed into a global commodity in the 20th century, resulting in numerous coffee cultures.

C. arabica and C. robusta are the two varieties of coffee bean that are most frequently cultivated. The majority of the tropical regions of the Americas, Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Africa are where coffee plants are grown. Over 70 countries worldwide grow coffee. Brazil was the world’s top producer of coffee beans in 2018, accounting for 35% of global production. Coffee that has not been roasted yet is traded as a food product. Despite the fact that coffee sales are in the billions of dollars worldwide, a disproportionate number of coffee farmers live in poverty. The coffee business has also come under fire for its harmful effects on the environment, as well as for removing land for coffee cultivation and water use.