In order to create the thick, potent coffee known as espresso, an espresso machine brews coffee by pushing pressurised water close to boiling temperature through a “puck” of ground coffee and a filter. Luigi Bezzera created the first espresso maker at the beginning of the 20th century. The La Pavoni company’s founder purchased the patent and started making espresso machines on a modest scale for sale in Milan starting in 1905. For the production of espresso, numerous machine designs have been developed. Some components, such as a grouphead and a portafilter, are shared by several computers. A steam wand, which is used to steam and froth liquids (like milk) for coffee drinks like cappuccinos and lattes, may also be included in an espresso machine.
Espresso machines can be powered by steam, pistons, pumps, or air pumps. Machines can be either automatic or manual.